Comparing delamination surfaces for each R parameter tested, differences can be observed. The striation density is related to the amount of energy that causes crack extension. For lower stress ratio, the amount of energy is lower, and therefore, small crack extensions are expected.
When stress ratio increases, the energy release rate also rises and larger crack extensions are formed. In the case of woven composites, it is confirmed that high stress ratio promotes an increase on the crack growth rate. The stress ratio plays key role in More I interlaminar delamination growth in composite materials. The average value of G IC for the carbon—epoxy woven composite here studied is 1. The fractographic examination reveals resin pockets between the warp and weft undulations. On one side, fracture topography is rougher with abrupt crack extensions when delamination is perpendicular to fibers.
On the other side, fracture topography is smoother with gradual crack extensions when delamination is parallel to fibers. When describing fracture micromechanics, for lower stress ratio, fatigue striations density is the highest, and it decreases as stress ratio rises. Volume 37 , Issue 8.
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Mauricio Torres Corresponding Author E-mail address: mtorresar conacyt. Jorge L.
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Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract This study analyzes crack growth behavior of woven carbon fiber reinforced plastics under tension—tension fatigue varying the stress ratio R.
Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. DCB: double cantilever beam. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Stress ratio Maximum load N Minimum load N 0. Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
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Figure 6 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 7 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Google Scholar. Introduction to Weibull Distribution In order to facilitate further discussion, it is necessary to first present an introduction to the Weibull distribution. Percentile of the Mean Value Bain proposed a method through which the sample size depends only on the p-percentile, the confidence level, and the desired confidence interval [ 31 ], as mentioned in the Introduction.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Illustration of the population distribution and the sampling distribution.
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Table 4 Sample size from the Weibull distribution. Table 5 Sample size from the normal distribution. Sample COV 0.
Table 6 Relative error limit in using five coupons for tensile test. Comparison and Recommendation By comparing Table 4 with Table 5 , it is found that the sample sizes based on the Weibull distribution and the normal distribution are almost the same, with the values based on the normal distribution being slightly larger. Conclusions This paper presents an analysis on the sample size for FRP coupon test.
Appendix A. Explanation for the Determination of Sample Size 5 and 7 Both the current guidelines and the authors assume a confidence level of 0. Author Contributions Conceptualization, W.
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Funding The authors would like to appreciate the financial support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the National industrial building diagnosis and Reconstruction Engineering Technology Research Center open fund. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Zhao X. State-of-the-art review on FRP strengthened steel structures.
Corradi M. Liang H. Electrochemical performance of corroded reinforced concrete columns strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer. Durability of CFRP strengthened steel plates under wet and dry cycles. Steel Struct. Hollaway L. Rousakis T.
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Reusable and recyclable nonbonded composite tapes and ropes for concrete columns confinement. Part B Eng. Ghafoori E. Flexural and interfacial behavior of metallic beams strengthened by prestressed bonded plates. Wang W. Intermediate crack-induced debonding in RC beams externally strengthened with prestressed FRP laminates. Analytical solution for stiffness prediction of bonded CFRP-to-steel double strap joints. Fatigue strengthening of damaged metallic beams using prestressed unbonded and bonded CFRP plates. Huang H. Fatigue behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with externally bonded prestressed CFRP sheets.
Bond strength of carbon fiber composites glued to concrete surface.
In-Plane Behavior of BFRP Sheets Bonded to Damaged RC-Brick Masonry Walls with Opening
Active and passive protection of steel reinforcement in concrete column using carbon fibre reinforced polymer against corrosion. Chen C. Bridge Eng. Utilization of hybrid approach towards advanced database of concrete beams strengthened in shear with FRPs. Fatigue behavior of notched steel beams reinforced with bonded CFRP plates: Determination of prestressing level for crack arrest. Design criterion for fatigue strengthening of riveted beams in a year-old railway metallic bridge using pre-stressed CFRP plates. JSCE-E Plastics—Determination of Tensile Properties.
ASTM D Chinese Standard Press; Beijing, China: Zureick A. Statistical characterization of fiber-reinforced polymer composite material properties for structural design. Atadero R. Calibration of resistance factors for reliability based design of externally-bonded FRP composites. Shaw A. A critical reliability evaluation of fibre reinforced composite materials based on probabilistic micro and macro-mechanical analysis.
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Gomes S. Probabilistic-based characterisation of the mechanical properties of CFRP laminates. Alqam M. Three-parameter vs.